MeansMedium Prepositions

(Under Development)


This category takes in all prepositional senses where the complement identifies the means by which, or the medium through which, something happens or is done. This category roughly corresponds to a grammatical instrumental case. This discussion of the MeansMedium class of prepositions is based on an examination of the MeansMedium senses identified in The Preposition Project (TPP) with the Pattern Dictionary of English Prepositions (PDEP). This set of senses is discussed in sections 9.43 and 9.48 to 9.51 of Quirk et al which describes this class as Means/Agentive specturm, where boundaries between subclasses frequently overlap. There are 28 means/medium senses under 18 prepositions. These prepositions generally answer the question How? or have an assocation with the particular preposition with. Prepositions in this class are closely related to those in the Cause class, but primarily identify an action or method by which a result is achieved, rather than the cause. Describe the general properties of the class, giving the nature of the complements, the contribution of the preposition, and something about the governor. Discuss the potential breakdown into subtypes or categories (are there major groupings and then smaller groupings. (See Preposition Classes for how this class relates to other classes. For the supersenses (unlexicalized categores for prepositions), see PrepWiki; the PDEP database is being kept synchronized with this project, as they are assigned to TPP senses.)

Category Types

Means/medium prepositions describe how some result is achieved (or provide a negative indicating specifically that something was not used), where the result is expressed in the governor of the prepositional phrase, including:

Selection Criteria

References

  1. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartik, J. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman: New York.

Comments to: Ken Litkowski  Modified: December 24 2016 13:46:10.
PDEP MeansMedium Class (94 senses)
PrepositionSenseSubclassSrtypeSupersenseClassedCountPctNF
\'gainst8(3)Manner:NegativeThingContrastedComparison/ContrastYes0100.00.19
\'gainst9(3a)Manner:NegativeThingContrastedYes0100.00.19
\'pon12(6)MediumMediumOfInformationDestination,LocusYes0100.00.19
\'pon13(6a)MediumMediumOfBroadcastViaYes0100.00.19
a la1(1)MannerDishYes4100.00.74
a la2(1a)MannerModelYes33100.06.12
according to2(1a)MannerMediumOfInstructionCircumstanceYes43100.0228.82
according to4(n)MediumMediumYes47100.0250.11
after10(5a)MannerTargetOfImitationComparison/ContrastYes1100.031.43
after9(5)MannerTargetOfAllusionComparison/ContrastYes1100.031.43
after the fashion of1(1)MannerModelYes6100.01.11
against8(3)Manner:NegativeThingContrastedComparison/ContrastYes17100.0364.40
against9(3a)Manner:NegativeThingContrastedYes1100.021.44
agin8(3)Manner:NegativeThingContrastedComparison/ContrastYes0100.00.19
agin9(3a)Manner:NegativeThingContrastedYes0100.00.19
along4(n)MannerHarmonizerYes26100.0134.05
as4(n)Manner:NegativeThingContrastedYes2100.0243.27
at11(6)MeansMeansInstrumentYes2100.0154.43
at11(6)-1StimulusStimulusStimulusYes7100.0540.50
by11(2f)MannerBackdropMannerYes11100.01311.36
by14(3b)MannerFrequencyFrequencyYes3100.0357.64
by23(n)MannerMannerYes0100.0119.21
by5(2)MeansMeansToEndMeansYes67100.07987.39
by6(2a)MannerReferentFunctionYes2100.0238.43
by8(2c)MeansTransportCourse,TransitYes2100.0238.43
by dint of1(1)MeansMeansYes38100.07.05
by force of1(1)MeansMeansYes28100.05.19
by means of1(1)MeansMeansYes250100.0213.69
by way of3(3)MeansMeansYes126100.069.74
following2(n)MannerMannerYes6100.03.17
for14(12)MannerSeriesItemFrequencyYes6100.0953.90
for8(7)MannerReferentFunctionYes5100.0794.91
frae14(11)Manner:NegativeContrastorComparison/ContrastYes0100.00.19
from14(11)Manner:NegativeContrastorComparison/ContrastYes23100.01920.24
in10(7a)MediumMusicalKeyAttributeYes0100.0370.99
in6(4a)-1MannerMannerContour,MannerYes29100.010758.59
in9(7)MediumMediumAttributeYes12100.04451.83
in common with1(1)MannerEntitySimilarYes80100.027.30
in keeping with1(1)MannerHarmonizerCircumstanceYes213100.039.51
in lieu of1(1)Instrument:NegativeThingReplacedYes87100.016.14
in place of1(1)Instrument:NegativeThingReplacedYes140100.042.49
in place of2(n)Agentive:NegativeAgentReplacedYes110100.033.38
in the fashion of1(1)MannerModelYes12100.02.23
in the shape of2(1a)MannerThingSimilarYes65100.012.68
instead of1(1)Instrument:NegativeThingReplacedComparison/ContrastYes250100.0469.67
like1(1)MannerThingSimilarComparison/ContrastYes137100.01710.01
like2(1a)MannerModelComparison/ContrastYes163100.02034.54
like3(1b)MannerFunctionComparedComparison/ContrastYes1100.012.48
like4(1c)MannerModelYes7100.087.37
like5(1d)MannerThingSimilarYes10100.0124.82
like6(2)MannerActionSignifiedYes22100.0274.60
more like1(1)MannerThingSimilarComparison/ContrastYes239100.093.99
near5(4)MannerThingSimilarComparison/ContrastYes0100.05.34
near to5(4)MannerThingSimilarYes7100.01.85
next door to2(1a)MannerModelYes2100.00.37
nigh5(4)MannerThingSimilarYes0100.00.19
o\'er15(6)MediumMediumViaYes0100.00.00
on12(6)MediumMediumOfInformationLocation,LocusYes23100.01903.28
on13(6a)MediumMediumOfBroadcastViaYes1100.082.75
on the order of2(2)MannerThingSimilarYes5100.00.93
onto3(n)MediumMediumOfInformationYes23100.030.22
out of5(4)Instrument:NegativeThingNegatedStateYes12100.0152.28
out of keeping with1(1)Manner:NegativeDisharmonizerYes9100.01.67
out of line with1(1)Manner:NegativeSubjectDisagreedWithYes49100.09.09
outta5(4)Instrument:NegativeThingNegatedYes0100.00.19
over15(6)MediumMediumViaYes4100.051.66
over against2(2)Manner:NegativeThingContrastingYes9100.01.67
per2(2)MeansMeansYes2100.09.86
sans2(1a)Means:NegativeActionOmittedYes0100.00.19
sans3(2)Instrument:NegativeThingNotUsedYes0100.00.19
short for1(1)MannerTargetOfAllusionYes18100.03.34
thro\'12(5)MeansMeansCourse,Means,ViaYes1100.00.02
thro\'13(5a)AgentiveIntermediaryViaYes0100.00.02
through12(5)MeansMeansCourse,Means,ViaYes185100.02304.06
through13(5a)AgentiveIntermediaryViaYes70100.0871.81
thru12(5)MeansMeansCourse,Means,ViaYes0100.00.19
thru13(5a)AgentiveIntermediaryViaYes0100.00.19
to15(7)MannerComparatorComparison/ContrastYes8100.01044.70
under cover of3(n)MediumMediumYes1100.00.19
unlike1(1)Manner:NegativeThingContrastingComparison/ContrastYes28100.052.00
unlike2(1a)Manner:NegativeThingContrastingComparison/ContrastYes221100.0410.43
unlike3(1b)Manner:NegativePartyOutOfCharacterYes1100.01.86
unto1(1)-1MannerMannerYes35100.06.49
upon12(6)MediumMediumOfInformationDestination,LocusYes0100.011.33
upon13(6a)MediumMediumOfBroadcastViaYes0100.011.33
versus2(1a)Manner:NegativeThingContrastingComparison/ContrastYes169100.079.75
via2(1a)MeansMeansMeans,ViaYes122100.0201.05
via3(1b)MediumMediumViaYes49100.080.75
vice1(1)Agentive:NegativeAgentReplacedYes0100.00.19
with4(3)InstrumentMeansInstrument,MeansYes34100.02687.82
with4(3)-1MeansMeansTopicYes21100.01660.13
with7(5)MannerMannerMannerYes36100.02845.93
without2(1a)Means:NegativeActionOmittedCircumstance,MannerYes137100.02307.76
without3(2)Instrument:NegativeThingNotUsedAttribute,InstrumentYes62100.01044.39
Total      54669.61