Cause Prepositions

(Under Development)


This discussion of the causal class of prepositions is based on an examination of the cause senses identified in The Preposition Project (TPP) with the Pattern Dictionary of English Prepositions (PDEP), along with the discussion in sections 9.43 to 9.47 of Quirk et al. Quirk et al. describe this class as the Cause/Purpose spectrum, where boundaries between subclasses frequently overlap. These prepositions generally answer the questions Why? or How?. The complements in this category identify the cause for something – sometimes for the governor, but also for other things named in the sentence. Cause here is broadly interpreted to refer to a Cause–Purpose spectrum that includes Cause, Reason, Motive, Purpose, Destination, and Target. There are 27 cause senses under 25 prepositions. (See Preposition Classes for how this class relates to other classes. For the supersenses (unlexicalized categores for prepositions), see PrepWiki; the PDEP database is being kept synchronized with this project, as they are assigned to TPP senses.)

Category Types

Selection Criteria

References

  1. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartik, J. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman: New York, pp. 695-8.

Comments to: Ken Litkowski  Modified: December 23 2016 22:05:16.

PDEP Cause Class (89 senses)
PrepositionSenseSubclassSrtypeSupersenseClassedCountPctNF
\'gainst11(n)TargetTargetOfBehaviorYes0100.00.19
\'pon11(5)TargetTargetGoalYes0100.00.19
after1(1)-1CauseCauseExplanationYes53100.01666.02
after7(3)TargetTargetOfPursuitYes3100.094.30
against11(n)TargetTargetOfBehaviorYes13100.0278.66
agin11(n)TargetTargetOfBehaviorYes0100.00.19
all for1(1)BeneficiaryThingFavoredYes40100.07.42
all over3(2)TargetObjectOfAffectionStateYes0100.01.32
as far as3(n)TargetGoalApproachedYes9100.011.55
at10(5a)TargetTargetOfActionDirectionYes4100.0308.85
at12(n)Beneficiary:EmployerEmployerProfessionalAspectYes13100.01003.78
at9(5)TargetTargetOfActionGoal,RecipientYes27100.02084.77
at the heels of1(1)TargetTargetOfPursuitYes5100.00.93
because of1(1)CauseCauseExplanationYes250100.01733.62
behind5(3)BeneficiaryPartySupportedYes13100.059.87
by courtesy of2(1a)CauseCauseYes10100.01.85
by reason of1(1)ReasonCauseYes228100.042.29
by virtue of1(1)ReasonCauseExplanationYes250100.0117.42
courtesy of2(1a)CauseCauseYes56100.010.39
due to1(1)RecipientPartyOwedYes7100.032.55
due to2(2)CauseCauseExplanationYes96100.0446.47
due to3(3)CauseCauseYes89100.0413.91
for1(1)BeneficiaryThingFavoredBeneficiary,Experiencer,Theme,TopicYes27100.04292.54
for3(3)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes46100.07313.22
for4(3a)Beneficiary:EmployerEmployerProfessionalAspectYes18100.02861.69
for5(4)PurposePurposeAttribute,Function,Purpose,ThemeYes121100.019236.94
for6(5)ReasonCauseCircumstance,Explanation,Purpose,ReciprocationYes39100.06200.34
for the benefit of1(1)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes228100.069.70
for the benefit of2(1a)TargetTargetOfDisplayYes22100.06.73
frae10(7)SourceOriginSeparationCo-Theme,InitialLocation,StartStateYes0100.00.19
frae10(7)-1SourceStartStateStartStateYes0100.00.19
frae12(9)CauseCauseCauseYes0100.00.19
frae13(10)SourceOriginOfKnowledgeSourceYes0100.00.19
from10(7)SourceOriginSeparationCo-Theme,InitialLocation,StartStateYes64100.05343.29
from10(7)-1SourceStartStateStartStateYes0100.083.49
from12(9)CauseCauseCauserYes27100.02254.20
from13(10)SourceOriginOfKnowledgeProfessionalAspect,SourceYes34100.02838.62
in aid of1(1)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes115100.021.33
in bed with3(n)CauseCauseYes6100.01.11
in behalf of1(1)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes2100.00.37
in behalf of2(2)BeneficiaryPartyRepresentedYes0100.00.19
in consideration of2(n)ReasonReasonYes10100.01.85
in favor of2(2)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes11100.02.04
in favour of2(2)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes189100.0355.77
in honor of1(1)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes0100.00.19
in honour of1(1)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes101100.018.73
in light of1(1)ReasonReasonYes58100.010.76
in memoriam1(1)BeneficiaryPartyCommemoratedYes0100.00.19
in sight of2(1a)TargetThingAttainableYes3100.00.56
in the light of1(1)ReasonReasonYes249100.0202.30
in the name of2(1a)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes157100.045.66
in the pay of1(1)Beneficiary:EmployerEmployerYes12100.02.23
in view of1(1)ReasonCauseYes250100.0120.20
in virtue of1(1)ReasonCauseYes83100.015.40
near to6(n)TargetAffecteeYes6100.01.58
o\'16(7b)CauseCauseCauseYes0100.00.00
of16(7b)CauseCauseCauser,StimulusYes0100.0247.32
on11(5)TargetTargetGoal,Patient,ThemeYes105100.08688.89
on account of1(1)ReasonCauseExplanationYes242100.049.02
on behalf of1(1)BeneficiaryBeneficiaryYes116100.0128.07
on behalf of2(2)BeneficiaryPartyRepresentedYes134100.0147.94
on the score of1(1)CauseCauseYes2100.00.37
on the strength of1(1)ReasonCauseYes104100.019.29
onto6(n)RecipientRecipientYes50100.065.70
onto8(n)TargetTargetYes13100.017.08
out of1(1)SourceOriginMaterial,SourceYes42100.0532.98
out of2(1a)ReasonReasonExplanationYes12100.0152.28
outta1(1)SourceOriginYes0100.00.19
outta2(1a)ReasonReasonYes0100.00.19
owing to1(1)CauseCauseExplanationYes241100.087.98
pro1(1)BeneficiaryThingFavoredYes6100.01.11
round7(3b)TargetTargetOfBlowDestinationYes1100.01.68
short of2(1a)TargetTargetMissedYes37100.031.30
thanks to1(1)CauseCauseExplanationYes202100.0109.71
to8(3)RecipientRecipientBeneficiary,Goal,RecipientYes153100.019979.89
to8(3)-1TargetAffecteeBeneficiary,Experiencer,PatientYes41100.05354.09
toward2(1a)TargetGoalApproachedGoalYes79100.045.95
toward4(2)TargetTargetOfBehaviorBeneficiary,TopicYes54100.031.41
toward4(2)-1TargetTargetOfAttitudeYes49100.028.50
towards2(1a)TargetGoalApproachedGoalYes84100.0829.49
towards4(2)TargetTargetOfBehaviorBeneficiary,TopicYes33100.0325.87
towards4(2)-1TargetTargetOfAttitudeYes44100.0434.50
unto1(1)RecipientRecipientYes104100.019.29
upon11(5)TargetTargetGoalYes40100.0453.29
with11(7b)CauseCauseStimulusYes15100.01185.80
with12(7c)CauseCoincidentCauseCauserYes3100.0237.16
with13(8)Beneficiary:EmployerEmployerProfessionalAspectYes3100.0237.16
with16(10)SourceThingRemovedYes6100.0474.32
within sight of2(1a)TargetThingAttainableYes6100.01.11
Total      99537.45