Senses of the Preposition "with"

(Source Files - Tagging is 72 percent complete as of 2/20/05)

Sense

Semantic Relation

Quirk Syntax

Quirk Paragraph

Other Prepositions

Complement Properties

Attachment Properties

Subsense category and gloss

Comments

1(1)

Accompanier

1, 2a

8.40, 9.52, 13.103, 17.37

next to, beside

anything that can accompany the attachment point

noun phrase

(core)

I have included here most uses of with that simply indicate a co-participant in an activity, even though ODE's wording doesn't encourage this.

2(2)

Attribute

1

9.55

of

an attribute, possession, or feature of the attachement point

noun phrase

(core)

 

3(2a)

Accoutrement

1

9.55

 

sth wearable or portable; nonpermanent feature

agent who can carry or wear sth; object bearing the complement

2: specific to nonpermanent attributes

 

4(3)

MeansName

1,2a

3.75, 8.80, 9.49, 9.50

by

an instrument in the action described by the attachment point

verb or verbal noun denoting an action

(core)

includes some fig extension: charge him with murder.

4(3)-1

Message

2a

*

 

content of a communication

verb of communication

3: extension is notion of motive to communicate

See notes.

5(3a)

MeansName

2a

9.29, 9.49, 9.50, 9.61

by

material or substance required for the action of the attachment point

verb denoting an action

2: specific to materials, substances; adverbial only, not postmodifier

 

6(4)

Opponent

2a

9.53

against

sb or sth opposed by subject of clause

verb or verbal noun denoting conflict

(core)

actually a subsense 9(7): specific to situations of conflict.

7(5)

Manner&Mood

2a

9.48

in, like, from

nouns denoting mood, manner, attitude, condition

verb denoting action or expression

(core)

considerable overlap with sense 11(7b)

8(6)

Responsibility

2a

9.50

by, through

sb who will be responsible

verb, verbal noun or idiom denoting responsibility

(core)

 

9(7)

Concomitant

2a, 2c, 3b

3.76, 16.69

concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard to, with respect to, toward

sb or sth linked with subject via the POA

verb, verbal noun or idiom denoting relation; many adjectives and participles (see Quirk 17.69)

(core)

not well defined in ODE, and oddly divided. See, e.g., MW11, sense 2.

10(7a)

Malady

1, 2a

9.44

from, of

a malady or suppressive entity

sb or sth subject to the condition noted in the complement

3: extension is notion of causative agent

I think this is more properly a subsense of 2 (attribute).

11(7b)

FeatureCause

1, 2a

9.44, 9.48, 9.52

in, from

nouns denoting a causal factor

verb or verbal noun denoting action, expression, phenomenon

3: extension is notion of cause

considerable overlap with sense 7(5)

12(7c)

Coresultant

2a, 2c

*

because of, along with

a feature accompanying sentence's main event

sth developed over time

3: extension is notion of coincident development

considerable overlap with sense 7(5)

13(8)

Employer

1, 2a

*

by

an employer

sb who works; often after copula

(core)

 

14(8a)

Partner

2a

9.50

at, through

a business establishment

verb denoting a client relationship

3: extension is notion of partnership

 

15(9)

Concurrent

2a

*

along

entity with a trajectory

verb denoting movement

(core)

 

15(9)-1

Harmonizer

1, 2a

9.53

on the right side of

a party capable of agreement; a norm, law, or standard

an entity seeking or subject to alliance or conformity

3: extension is notion of agreement and harmony

See notes.

16(10)

ThingRemoved

2a

*

from

sth separable or dispensable from agent

verb or verbal noun denoting separation, divison, partition

(core)

 

Legend:

This document maintained by Ken Litkowski.

Copyright ©2005 CL Research, Orin Hargraves, Ken Litkowski