Senses of the Preposition "through"

(Source Files)

Sense (ODE)

Semantic Role

Quirk Syntax

Quirk Paragraph

Other Prepositions

Other Syntactic Realizations

Other Prepositions from FrameNet Instances

Frame:FrameElement

Complement Properties

Attachment Properties

Comments

1(1)

ThingTransited

2a, 3a

9.25, 9.28

across, over, out

 

on; through; via; round; at; by; past; towards; across; down; out; over; along; toward; up; from; in; after; around; back; beyond; above; straight; between; nowhere; right; low; to; alongside; into; under; away; underneath; against; about; hard; of; heavily; among; sharply; off; onto; within; with; behind; anywhere; beneath; inside; deep; somewhere; the; aro; below; before; beside; centrally; directly; upon; near; either; next; close; all; just; outside; capacious; for; amongst; throughout; consistently; due; forwards; further; stinking; even; less; though;

Arriving:Path; Cause_motion:Path; Cotheme:Path; Departing:Path; Escaping:Location; Escaping:Path; Evading:Path; Fluidic_motion:Path; Mass_motion:Path; Motion:Path; Motion_directional:Path; Motion_noise:Path; Operate_vehicle:Path; Path_shape:Path; Placing:Goal; Placing:Path; Removing:Path; Roadways:Area; Self_motion:Area; Self_motion:Path; Breathing:Path

opening, channel, or physical location

verbs of motion

 

2(1a)

ThingBored

1, 2a, 3a

9.25, 9.28

into

 

into; on; over; about; at; across; in; under; full; against; between; through; around; with; behind; off; onto; towards; a; by; down; straight; outside; along; near; below; beneath; above; of; within; next; underneath; high; just; beside; beyond; throughout; close; up; for; from;

Cause_harm:Body_part; Impact:Impactee; Natural_features:Relative_location; Use_firearm:Path

permeable or breakable physical object

verbs denoting penetration

this sense is for things that get "through" by violence, or unintentionally (leakage, etc.)

3(1b)

ThingTransited

1, 2a, 3a

9.25, 9.26, 9.28

among, within

 

inside; through; under; within; at; deep; beneath; just; somewhere; amongst; between; on; behind; among; above; around; over; all; close; across; along; down; towards; up; past; via; back; from; of; alongside; by; with; to;

Emotion_heat:Location; Path_shape:Area; Ride_Vehicle:Path; Roadways:Path; Self_motion:Self_mover; Travel:Path

sth regarded as homogenous

verbs of motion

 

4(1c)

ThingPenetrated

1, 2a, 3a

*

into

 

at; from; in; through; under; near; on; by; down; inside; about; above; to; among; round; with; between; across; over; beneath; beyond; into; against; inlaid; behind; within; ahead; around; along; towards; past; up; back; off; below; deep; northwards; westward; outside; after; toward; amongst; of; like; without; as; upon; right; well; 20; just;

Encoding:Speaker; Becoming_aware:Ground; Becoming_aware:Means; Light_movement:Path; Location_of_light:Ground; Perception_active:Body_part; Perception_active:Direction; Perception_active:Ground; Perception_active:Manner; Perception_active:Means; Perception_experience:Body_part; Perception_experience:Depictive; Perception_experience:Direction; Perception_experience:Ground

a permeable obstacle

a perceived object; sometimes complement of a verb of perception

e.g., the sunlight streaming through the window/I heard the screaming through the walls/you could feel the mind right through your coat

5(1d)

ChannelTransited

1, 2a, 3a

9.19, 9.22, 9.27

across, over

 

 

 

an opening or obstacle

copula or verb of location

 

5(1d)-1

Route

1, 2a, 3a

9.27

by way of, via

 

through; over; across; via;

Emitting:Path

opening, channel, or physical location

verbs of motion

 

6(1e)

ExtentTransited

3a

9.25, 9.28

across

 

by; through;

Cause_to_move_in_place:Angle; Moving_in_place:Angle

a distance (often in degrees)

verbs of motion

 

7(2)

PeriodBisected

3a

9.36, 9.37

into

 

 

 

period of time or process

no clear pattern

 

8(2a)

ThingCompleted

3a

9.32

 

 

 

 

an ordeal or obstacle

verbs indicating movement, progress, or struggle

many "through" phrasal verbs are this sense; see notes

9(2b)

ThingSurvived

3a

9.32

 

 

 

 

an experience (often negative)

often verbs of endurance, impatience, inactivity

 

10(3)

ThingInspected

3a

9.29

 

 

over; through; for; of; on; from; in; into; within; back; beneath; between; beyond; about; among; around; under; at; up; amongst; away;

Reading:Text; Scrutiny:Ground; Seeking:Ground

often NPs designating something readable

verbs of searching, studying, inspecting

 

10(3)-1

ThingPermeated

2a, 3a

8.63n, 9.29

throughout, over

 

through; via; across;

Emanating:Path

permeable object

verbs denoting a uniformly dispersed activity

specialized use: "all through" or "through the whole X"

11(4)

SequenceTerminus

3a

9.37

till, until

 

 

 

a day, date, or time

may follow another day, date or time that may follow "from"

 

12(5)

Intermediary

1, 2a, 2b, 3a

9.50, 14.19n

by way of, via

 

along; by; over; down; towards; across; through; up; from; to; past; on; of; simply; at; in; only; partly; with; without; for;

Carrying:Path; Coming_to_believe:Evidence; Cure:Treatment; Emitting:Means; Encoding:Medium; Getting:Means; Perception_experience:Means; Encoding:Speaker

often an abstraction; may include a gerund

verb or its object denoting sth effected, achieved, or influenced

Using this sense for intermediacy as noted in Quirk 9.50

12(5)-1

Handle

2a, 3a

*

 

 

onto; in; into; on; for; round; over; around; above; across; directly; through; under; about; at; by; all; between; near; from;

Attaching:Goal

thing that the POA attaches to

thing that the complement is joined to

see notes.

13(5a)

AgentName

1, 2a, 3a

9.50

by

 

through; by; on; in; of; up; that;

Encoding:Speaker; Contacting:Intermediary; Cotheme:Means; Hear:Medium; Removing:Theme

any agent or agency; often abstract

verbs of perception, obtaining, effecting

 

Legend:

This document maintained by Ken Litkowski.

Copyright ©2005 CL Research, Orin Hargraves, Ken Litkowski