Senses of the Preposition "for"

(Source Files)

Sense

Semantic Relation

Quirk Syntax

Quirk Paragraph

Other Prepositions

Complement Properties

Attachment Properties

Subsense category and gloss

Comments

1(1)

Beneficiary

1, 3a, 3b

9.53

in favor of

desired or desirable outcome

nouns & verbs of persuasion, support, winning, aspiration

core

 

2(2)

Concomitant

1, 3a, 3b

*

with, of

otherwise object of state or feeling represented by POA

a feeling or state

core

This sense is an omnibus; includes many uses for which 'for' is purely idiomatic. ODE includes no personal objects in examples, but I've lumped things here that include some, esp. frame experiencer (e.g., it was difficult for them)

2(2)-1

Experiencer

2a, 2b

*

with, on the part of

experiencer of condition or feeling in POA

a feeling or state; overwhelmingly adj.

2: reduced to include only cases where complement is the experiencer

See notes; created to relieve omnibus aspects of sense 2, which had phrases falling out the windows.

3(3)

Beneficiary

1, 3a, 3b

9.46

on behalf of

usually a person; otherwise, sth capable of benefiting

adj, noun or verb; little discernable pattern

core

This sense is subject to omission of for with many ditransitive verbs: I got a present for you = I got you a present.

4(3a)

Employer

1, 3a

*

with, by

an employer or institution

noun or verb representing work or a profession

2: specialized case is employment

 

5(4)

Purpose

1

9.44

to

fulfillment of the POA

noun or verb representing purposeful action

core

 

6(5)

Cause

1, 2a, 3b

9.44

because of

justification of the POA

noun or verb representing purposeful action

core

I've lumped some personal objects here, when a person is the reason for sth, even though ODE only says thing.

7(6)

Destination

1, 3a

9.45

to

a destination

verb or motion or a conveyance

core

underrepresented in FrameNet, given that it's a very common sense.

8(7)

Referent

3a

*

 

referent of the POA

representamen of the comp; often accomapnied by a copula or stands (I.e., x stand for y.)

core

 

9(8)

SwapGoal

3a

*

 

item or items in a transaction

an amount, or other item in transaction

core

 

10(8a)

Price

1, 3a

*

at

an amount of money

sth money can be exchanged for

2: specialized case is purchasing

 

11(9)

ReferentNorm

2a, 3b

9.62

 

sth that can serve as a standard or basis of comparison

mainly adjs (but some other POSs) expressing judgment or a state

core

 

12(10)

TimePeriod

2a, 3a

9.36, 9.38

during

a period of time

sth subject to duration

core

See Quirk 9.42 concerning omission of for in duration phrases

13(11)

Distance

3a

*

along

a distance expressed in units

sth admitting of extension

core

not found in FrameNet

14(12)

SeriesItem

2a

*

 

the formula 'the [ordinal] time'

an action or state

core

not found in FrameNet; often followed by an 'in' phrase, e.g., FOR the first time IN ten years.

Legend:

This document maintained by Ken Litkowski.

Copyright ©2005 CL Research, Orin Hargraves, Ken Litkowski