Treatment of “without”


DIMAP/NODE and ODE each contain four senses; organization and wording is slightly different; I have followed ODE as usual.


Notes from the spreadsheet:


Other instances of without that may deserve idiomatic treatment:

Short stock phrases using without sometimes fall outside the range of defined meanings. without doubt and without a doubt are submodifiers that should be treated as single lexemes; the instance occurring in FrameNet are assigned to 1(1) as being the closest sense, but they are better not treated as PPs. Others in this category are without fail, it goes without saying that . . ., without question, without rhyme or reason. Without PPs that begin without so much as . . . are usually sense 2(1a), describing some action undertaken without another that might be expected to accompany it. Likewise the stock phrase without any/too much trouble, in which the verbal noun taking is implicit, is assigned to sense 2(1a).


Other Notes:

without is very often followed by a single abstract noun. Frequent examples are: pay, permission, question, warning, basis, exception, and many others. Given how ODE has divided the senses these are variously assigned to one of the first three senses, but in a general way their import is always quite similar: the PPs are typically attached to verbs and the intent is to show that one thing happens without another, which is conceivably possible, arising concomitantly.