Exception Prepositions

(Under Development)


This category of prepositional senses includes mostly subjuncts and disjuncts that indicate something constituting an exception or exclusion to what is predicated in the related clause. This discussion of the Exception class of prepositions is based on an examination of the Exception senses identified in The Preposition Project (TPP) with the Pattern Dictionary of English Prepositions (PDEP). This set of senses is discussed in sections 9.58 and 9.59 of Quirk et al. There are 26 exception senses under 24 prepositions. Many senses in the exception class are related to the Membership class, essentially acting as its opposite. That is, whereas membership identifies inclusion in some group, exception indicates that its complement is not in a group, usually identified by the governor. Other senses identify a factor that is excluded from consideration. (See Preposition Classes for how this class relates to other classes. For the supersenses (unlexicalized categores for prepositions), see PrepWiki; the PDEP database is being kept synchronized with this project, as they are assigned to TPP senses.)

Category Types

The complement of exception senses identifies some entity that is not included in the governor entity or not considered in what is predicated in the main clause, including:

Selection Criteria

References

  1. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartik, J. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman: New York, pp. 707-9.

Comments to: Ken Litkowski  Modified: December 25 2016 13:58:23.
PDEP Exception Class (30 senses)
PrepositionSenseSubclassSrtypeSupersenseClassedCountPctNF
\'cept1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes1100.00.19
apart from1(1)ExceptionExceptionElementsYes113100.0161.98
aside from1(1)ExceptionExceptionElementsYes57100.010.57
bar1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes11100.02.04
bar2(1a)ExceptionHorsesExceptedYes0100.00.19
barring1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes10100.01.85
beyond9(5)ExclusionExceptionElementsYes28100.0117.63
but1(1)ExceptionExceptionElementsYes183100.0148.27
but for1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes5100.04.87
but for2(1a)ExceptionPartyRequiredYes29100.028.27
dehors1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes0100.00.19
ex3(2)ExceptionThingExcludedYes12100.02.23
except1(1)ExceptionExceptionElementsYes128100.0191.18
except for1(1)ExceptionExceptionElementsYes250100.0134.48
excepting1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes21100.03.90
excluding1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes184100.034.13
exclusive of1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes25100.04.64
give or take2(1a)ExceptionExceptionYes6100.01.11
irrespective of1(1)ExclusionThingDisregardedYes250100.0100.35
other than1(1)ExceptionExceptionElementsYes242100.0437.04
outside4(2)ExceptionThingExcludedYes79100.0365.82
outside of2(1a)ExceptionExceptionElementsYes22100.05.27
outside of3(n)ExceptionThingExcludedYes91100.021.81
outwith4(2)ExceptionThingExcludedYes32100.05.94
regardless of1(1)ExclusionThingDisregardedCircumstanceYes250100.0145.43
save1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes35100.06.49
save2(n)ExceptionExceptionYes85100.015.77
saving1(1)ExceptionExceptionYes0100.00.19
than2(2)ExceptionExceptionComparison/ContrastYes205100.02118.66
with the exception of1(1)ExceptionExceptionElementsYes250100.071.97
Total      4142.46