Senses of the Preposition "by"

Sense

(ODE)

Semantic

Role

Quirk

Syntax

Quirk

Paragraph

Other

Prepositions

Other

Syntax

Frame

FrameElement

Complement

Properties

Attachment

Properties

Comments

1

(1)

AgentName

1, 2a

9.50, I.40

with

 

 

(subsumes all of 2 and 3)

 

 

see Quirk I.40 on deverbal suffix -able +agentive by-phrase

2

(1a)

AgentName

2a

9.50, 3.65, 17.103

with

 

Arrest, Arson, Awareness, Carrier, Cause_Confinement, Cause_harm, Cause_motion, Cause_to_wake, Coming_to_believe, Cotheme, Destroying, Detaining, Duplication, Emitting, Experiencer_obj, Judgment_Communication, Perception_Experience, Placing, Relative_Time, Rewards_and_Punishments, Surpassing

Authorities, Perpetrator, Evidence, Carrier, Cause, Buyer, Cognizer, Agent, Cotheme, Theme, Focal_occasion, Creator, Stimulus, Communicator, Body_part, Source_emitter, Profiled_item

straightforward passive construction; would-be subject follows 'by'

typically immediately after passive verb or past participle

 

3

(1b)

AgentName

1

9.50

of, on the part of

 

Attempt, Attention, Avoiding, Awareness, Becoming_Aware, Candidness, Categorization, Cause_expansion, Change_of_leadership, Choosing, Cogitation, Conspiracy, Coming_to_believe, Commerce_buy, Commitment, Communicate_categorization, Compliance, Contacting, Cure, Departing, Finish_competition, Firing, Judgment_Communication, Killing, Removing, Rite, Scrutiny

Agent, Endeavor, Perceiver, Cognizer, Speaker, Selector, Partners, Pledge, Protagonist, Communicator, Healer, Theme, Killer, Leader, Competitor, Employer

perpetrator of action represented by the noun

follows a noun representing an action

 

4

(1c)

AgentName

1

9.50

of

 

Text

Author,

author's or artist's name

follows a noun representing a creation

 

5

(2)

MeansName

2a

9.49, 8.80

with

 

Arriving, Attaching, Attempt, Awareness, Becoming_Aware, Being_Attached, Cause_Confinement, Cause_expansion, Cause_harm, Cause_motion, Cause_temperature_change, Cause_to_be_dry, Cause_to_move_in_place, Coming_to_believe, Commerce_Pay, Communicate_categorization, Cotheme, Cure, Death, Depart, Killing, Manipulation, Path_shape, Smuggling

Path, Connector, Means, Evidence, Handle, Instrument, Locus, Criteria, Cause, Ground, Treatment, Manner, Road

very wide variety; includes all 'by which' clauses.

follows nouns & adjectives (including part participles)

See notes.

6

(2a)

TermInterp

2a

*

as

 

Communicate_categorization

Category

a term, often in quotes

finite verb set: passive of mean, translate

this is really a subset of agent or means with limited scope.

7

(2b)

NameUsed

2a

*

as

 

Name_bearing

Name

a name or other personal identifier; the word 'name' or its synonyms

after the object of 'call,' 'mention,' or 'address'

possibly included in this sense: a rose by any other name and similar by another name constructions, which are a species of means phrases.

8

(2c)

Transport

2a

9.49, 5.45

on, in

 

Arriving, Departing, Travel, Path_Shape

Mode_of_transportation, Path, Vehicle

relatively closed set: nouns denoting transport. FrameNet 'Mode_of_transportation'

verbs denoting travel

 

9

(2d)

Parent

1

*

of

 

 

 

a name or kinship term (esp. wife or husband)

typically son, daughter, child

 

10

(2e)

Parent

1

*

of

 

 

 

(pedigree) animal name

animal name, esp. animal young

 

11

(2f)

Accompaniment

2a

*

while, during

 

 

 

(notes describe the two classes of these)

(see notes)

See notes

12

(3)

MarginSize

2a

*

 

 

change_of_scalar, change_event_time, Change_position_on_a_scale, Commerce, Relative_time, Expansion

Difference, Interval, Attribute, Degree, Speed, Rate, Size_Change

figures, numbers, terms denoting quantity

mainly predicate, after verb or its complement

verbs typically are those that can denote a difference between two things.

13

(3a)

UnitSize

2a

*

in

 

 

 

a unit of measure (time, volume, quantity)

mainly predicate, after verb or its complement

verbs typically describe a quantifiable activity.

14

(3b)

UnitName

2a

*

 

 

 

 

a tangible object or a unit of time

same as comp (e.g., piece by piece)

See notes

15

(3c)

UnitName

2a

*

 

 

Categorization, Separation, Differentiation

Criteria, Criterion, Quality

a category of classification; typically a high freq. Hypernym

sth that admits of categorization by the complement; FrameNet 'Item'

verb forms speficying classification are often present (segregate,separate, differ, classify, etc.

16

(3d)

Multiplier

1,2a

*

 

 

 

 

figures, numbers, terms denoting quantity

a figure or quantity of the same scale as the complement

 

17

(4)

TargetTime

2a

9.39, 7.70, 8.59

at, on, +Quirk7.70

 

Departing, Surpassing

Time

term or formula denoting a time, or the time

a temporal event

often first in sentence: by the time I get to Phoenix . . .

18

(5)

LocBeside

2a

9.20

beside, near, alongside, next to, close to

 

Being_attached, Body_movement, Change_posture, Placing, Posture, Self_motion, Social_Event

Goal, Location, Place, Area

tangible object located in space

the reference object of the complement

verbs motion or of location in space are usually present. See also Frame Locative_Relation

19

(5a)

PlacePast

2a

(8.41)

past

 

 

 

tangible object located in space

the reference object of the complement

See notes for sense 19; this is a quasi-adverbial use.

20

(6)

ActivePeriod

2a

9.34, 5.46

during

 

Cause_temperature_change,

Time

mainly 'day' and 'night'. FrameNet 'Time'

typically predicate; little discernable pattern

signif. No. of instances in which both 'day' and 'night' are present in same sentence.

21

(7)

PartyAccepting

2a, 3b

*

with

 

 

 

usu. a personal pronoun; sometimes a name or title

typically predicate; little discernable pattern

somewhat informal use

22

(8)

PartyInvoked

2a

*

on, upon

 

 

 

a revered object or deity

usually swear (present tense)

See notes; figurative use is common.

Legend:

This document maintained by Ken Litkowski.

Copyright ©2004 CL Research, Orin Hargraves, Ken Litkowski